A development toolchain for a pulsed injector-ejector unit for PEM fuel cell applications

Gerald Singer*, Gregor Gappmayer, Marie Macherhammer, Patrick Pertl, Alexander Trattner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The anode subsystem of PEM fuel cells has to supply hydrogen in the required temperature, pressure, mass flow and concentration range under all operating conditions. At present, several components such as valves, sensors and a recirculation pump/blower (active recirculation) secure the supply, which consumes a significant amount of energy and reduces the overall efficiency. Passive recirculation with a pulsed injector-ejector unit is a promising approach to guarantee the required supply while maintaining low energy consumption. However, high development efforts are necessary to design and optimize an injector-ejector for the entire operating range. This paper proposes a novel development toolchain consisting of simulation models and experimental validation. In addition, simulation and measurement results are within a 2% accuracy for the stoichiometric ratio at nominal power. Further, the results show that recirculation covers the entire operating range. This toolchain enables accurate design and optimization of injector-ejector units saving development time and costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23818-23832
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number56
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • 1D, 3D CFD, experiment
  • Development toolchain
  • Passive anode hydrogen recirculation
  • PEM fuel cell
  • Pulsed injector-ejector unit

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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