A Passive Intermodulation Source Identification Measurement System Using a Vibration Modulation Method

Sen Yang, Wei Wu, Shuai Xu, Yao Jiang Zhang, Daniel Stutts, David J. Pommerenke*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A measurement system which uses acoustic vibration to locate passive-intermodulation (PIM) sources in base station antennas is presented. This measurement system uses mechanical vibration to modulate the PIM signal. The modulation of the PIM signal is detected, and its strength or presence/absence is used as guidance for selecting the location of the vibrating transducer. For the method to be successful, the PIM signal must be caused by loose mechanical contacts or loose nonlinear materials. By introducing the acoustic vibration at different locations in the base station antenna and observing if the PIM signal is modulated by the acoustic frequency, the most likely location of the PIM source is identified.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7933226
Pages (from-to)1677-1684
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Base station antenna
  • passive intermodulation (PIM)
  • vibration modulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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