Bioengineering a glucose oxidase nanosensor for near-infrared continuous glucose monitoring

Vitalijs Zubkovs, Hanxuan Wang, Nils Schuergers, Astrid Weninger, Anton Glieder, Stefano Cattaneo, Ardemis A. Boghossian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) emit photostable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence that is conducive for optical glucose monitoring. Such SWCNT-based optical sensors often require the immobilization of proteins that can confer glucose selectivity and reactivity. In this work, we immobilize a glucose-reactive enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx), onto SWCNTs using a N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) crosslinker via thiol bioconjugation of engineered cysteine residues. We compare the conjugation of several glucose oxidase variants containing rationally-engineered cysteines and identify a D70C variant that shows effective bioconjugation. The bioconjugation was characterized through both absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrate an application for continuous glucose monitoring in the NIR-II optical region using the bioconjugated reaction solution, which shows a reversible response to physiological concentrations of glucose. Finally, we develop a miniaturized NIR-II reader to be used for cell cultures that require continuous glucose monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2420-2427
Number of pages8
JournalNanoscale Advances
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Bioengineering a glucose oxidase nanosensor for near-infrared continuous glucose monitoring'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this