Influence of Zn2+ doping on the morphotropic phase boundary in lead-free piezoelectric (1 – x)Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xBaTiO3

Daniel Bremecker*, K. V. Lalitha, Siegfried Teuber, Jurij Koruza, Jürgen Rödel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A series of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) compositions of (1–x)Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xBaTiO3 (x = 0.05, 0.055, 0.06, 0.065, 0.07), with and without 0.5 mol% Zn-doping was synthesized using the solid-state route. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, dielectric analysis, and electromechanical measurements (piezoelectric d33 coefficient, coupling factor kp, mechanical quality factor Qm, and internal bias field Ebias). The increase in the ferroelectric-relaxor transition temperature upon Zn-doping was accompanied by a shift of the MPB toward the Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-rich side of the phase diagram. Higher tetragonal phase fraction and increased tetragonal distortion were noted for Zn-doped (1 – x)Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xBaTiO3. In addition, ferroelectric hardening and the presence of an internal bias field (Ebias) were observed for all doped compositions. The piezoelectric constant d33 and the coupling coefficient kp decreased by up to ∼30%, while a 4- to 6-fold increase in Qm was observed for the doped compositions. Apart from establishing a structure–property correlation, these results highlight the chemically induced shift of the phase diagram upon doping, which is a crucial factor in material selection for optimal performance and commercialization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1232-1240
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • lead-free
  • morphotropic phase boundary
  • Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xBaTiO3
  • piezoceramic
  • Zn-doping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science


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