Studies of lichen genomics began a few years ago, initially with the larger and more complex genomes of the primary mycobionts and photobionts, which when completed will result in detailed annotation of individual symbiont strains. Three of these projects will be described in this chapter. Investigations of lichen‐associated and intrathalline bacteria, addressing different types of questions and using different forms of analysis, but these studies have proceeded quickly and are leading the way in terms of implementing new technologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics for studying lichen biology; some of these projects will also be reviewed in this chapter. The anticipated and welcomed challenge for lichenologists and mycologists studying lichen fungi will be to use genomic and other new methodological tools to consider all the biological entities and their contributions, and thereby arrive at a better understanding of the symbiotic biology and ecology of lichens.
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