Measuring Sub-23 Nanometer Real Driving Particle Number Emissions Using the Portable DownToTen Sampling System

Markus Bainschab*, Lukas Landl, Jonathan Andersson, A. Mamakos, Stefan Hausberger, Alexander Bergmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current particle size threshold of the European Particle Number (PN) emission standards is 23 nm. This threshold could change because future combustion engine vehicle technology may emit large amounts of sub-23 nm particles. The Horizon 2020 funded project DownToTen (DTT) developed a sampling and measurement method to characterize particle emissions in this currently unregulated size range. A PN measurement system was developed based on an extensive review of the literature and laboratory experiments testing a variety of PN measurement and sampling approaches. The measurement system developed is characterized by high particle penetration and versatility, which enables the assessment of primary particles, delayed primary particles, and secondary aerosols, starting from a few nanometers in diameter. This paper provides instruction on how to install and operate this Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) for Real Drive Emissions (RDE) measurements and assess particle number emissions below the current legislative limit of 23 nm.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere61287
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Publication statusPublished - 22 May 2020


  • Automotive
  • Dilution
  • Emissions
  • Engineering
  • Issue 159
  • Particle number
  • Portable emission measurement
  • Real driving emissions
  • Sampling
  • Sub-23 nm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production


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