Mountains, Lowlands, and Coasts: The Physiography of Cold Landscapes

Tobias Bolch*, Hanne H. Christiansen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Large parts of the terrestrial area of planet Earth belong to the cryosphere. The distribution is mainly governed by temperature, precipitation, and wind. Hence, snow and ice are predominant in high latitudes, but are restricted to high altitudes in mid-latitudes and low latitudes. Here, we first give an overview of the physiography of high mountains, cold lowlands, and cold coasts, and then focus on glaciers and permafrost, and their interaction, as the most important and widespread components of the terrestrial cryosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSnow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks, and Disasters
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9780123964731
ISBN (Print)9780123948496
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Coasts
  • Cold landscapes
  • Glaciers
  • Lowlands
  • Mountains
  • Permafrost

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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