Particle-Scale Modeling to Understand Liquid Distribution in Twin-Screw Wet Granulation

Ashish Kumar*, Stefan Radl, Krist V. Gernaey, Thomas De Beer, Ingmar Nopens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Experimental characterization of solid-liquid mixing for a high shear wet granulation process in a twin-screw granulator (TSG) is very challenging. This is due to the opacity of the multiphase system and high-speed processing. In this study, discrete element method (DEM) based simulations are performed for a short quasi-two-dimensional simulation domain, incorporating models for liquid bridge formation, rupture, and the effect of the bridges on inter-particular forces. Based on the knowledge gained from these simulations, the kneading section of a twin-screw wet granulation process was simulated. The time evolution of particle flow and liquid distribution between particles, leading to the formation of agglomerates, was analyzed. The study showed that agglomeration is a rather delayed process that takes place once the free liquid on the particle surface is well distributed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number928
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • discrete element method
  • wet granulation
  • pharmaceutical processing
  • Wet granulation
  • Discrete element method
  • Pharmaceutical processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Fields of Expertise

  • Mobility & Production


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