Quantitative Chemical Phase Imaging by Means of Energy Filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy

Werner Grogger, Ferdinand Hofer*, Gerald Kothleitner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is a powerful method to produce 2-dimensional elemental distribution maps. These maps show in a clear way the chemical situation of a small specimen region. In this work we used a Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF) attached to a 20OkV TEM to investigate a Ba-Nd-titanate ceramic. The three phases occuring in this material could be visualized using inner-shell ionization edges(Ba M45, Nd M45 and Ti L23). We applied different image correlation techniques to the ESI elemental maps for direct visualization of the chemical phases. First we simply overlaid the elemental maps assigning each element one colour to form an RGB image. Secondly we used the technique of scatter diagrams to classify the different phases. Finally we quantified the elemental maps by dividing them and multiplying them by the appropriate inner-shell ionization cross-sections which gave atomic ratio images. By using these methods we could clearly identify and quantify the various phases in the Ba-Nd-titanate specimen.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalMicrochimica Acta
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • Analytical electron microscopy
  • Atomic ratio images
  • Ba-Nd-titanate ceramic
  • Electron spectroscopic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

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