Recent Advances in Type I Photoinitiators for Visible Light Induced Photopolymerization

Stefanie Monika Müller, Sandra Schlögl, Tanja Wiesner, Michael Haas*, Thomas Grießer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Photopolymerization and its application in the dental, three-dimensional (3D) printing, coating and electronic industry has become increasingly popular over the last decades. A huge variety of photoinitiators (PIs) and photoinitiating systems (PISs) have been developed that are able to generate reactive species, e. g. radicals, radical cations, and cations upon light absorption. In this Review, we focus on radical-generating Type I PIs which undergo homolytic cleavage after irradiation with visible light. The possibility to utilize electromagnetic irradiation above 400 nm for the initiation of polymerization reactions provides several advantages such as a lower energy demand and higher curing depths in pigmented reactive systems. Recent developments of PIs based on phosphorus and group 14 elements as well as other selected concepts for Type I visible light initiators are outlined and discussed within this review.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202200091
Issue number11
Early online date27 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • 3D printing
  • germanium
  • phosphorus
  • photoinitiators
  • polymerization
  • silicon
  • visible light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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