Solubility of C-A-S-H phases with high degree of heavy metal ion substitution

Andre Baldermann*, Veronika Preissegger, Martin Dietzel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Knowledge about interactions between cementitious materials and dissolved metal (Me) ions is key for environmental remediation and waste management, but thermodynamic data on this topic are still limited. We present solubility data for nanocrystalline C-A-S-H phases substituted by distinct Me ions with (Ca + Me)/(Si + Al) molar ratios from 0.86 to 1.04 and Ca2+ substitution of ∼ 48 mol% for Zn2+, ∼29 mol% for Co2+ and ∼ 27 mol% for Cu2+ in tobermorite-type Me-C-A-S-H. The solubility constants of the Me-C-A-S-H phases are significantly lower compared to pure C-A-S-H (logK = -8.3), ranging from logK = -8.6 to −11.3 for Co-C-A-S-H, logK = -9.1 to −11.6 for Cu-C-A-S-H and logK = -8.9 to −14.1 for Zn-C-A-S-H, as the Me content increases according to the expression: logKMe-C-A-S-H=0.11±0.03·%Mesubstitution-8.33±0.12;R2=0.89 independent on the type of incorporated Me ion. Thus, newly-forming C-A-S-H phases have a high immobilization potential for aqueous Me ions. The novel solubility data open the door for thermodynamic modelling of Me ion mobility in aquatic media.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126926
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2022


  • C-A-S-H phase
  • Environment
  • Heavy metals, Solubility
  • Water management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)


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