Stable native RIP9 complexes associate with C-to-U RNA editing activity, PPRs, RIPs, OZ1, ORRM1 and ISE2

Rafael Sandoval, Robert D. Boyd, Alena N. Kiszter, Yeva Mirzakhanyan, Paola Santibańez, Paul D. Gershon, Michael L. Hayes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs of the majority of land plants are modified through cytidine to uridine (C-to-U) RNA editing. Previously, forward and reverse genetic screens demonstrated a requirement for pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins for RNA editing. Moreover, chloroplast editing factors OZ1, RIP2, RIP9 and ORRM1 were identified in co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments, albeit the minimal complex sufficient for editing activity was never deduced. The current study focuses on isolated, intact complexes that are capable of editing distinct sites. Peak editing activity for four sites was discovered in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) fractions ≥ 670 kDa, while fractions estimated to be approximately 413 kDa exhibited the greatest ability to convert a substrate containing the editing site rps14 C80. RNA content peaked in the ≥ 670 kDa fraction. Treatment of active chloroplast extracts with RNase A abolished the relationship of editing activity with high-MW fractions, suggesting a structural RNA component in native complexes. By immunoblotting, RIP9, OTP86, OZ1 and ORRM1 were shown to be present in active gel filtration fractions, though OZ1 and ORRM1 were mainly found in low-MW inactive fractions. Active editing factor complexes were affinity-purified using anti-RIP9 antibodies, and orthologs to putative Arabidopsis thaliana RNA editing factor PPR proteins, RIP2, RIP9, RIP1, OZ1, ORRM1 and ISE2 were identified via mass spectrometry. Western blots from co-IP studies revealed the mutual association of OTP86 and OZ1 with native RIP9 complexes. Thus, RIP9 complexes were discovered to be highly associated with C-to-U RNA editing activity and other editing factors indicative of their critical role in vascular plant editosomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1116-1126
Number of pages11
JournalThe Plant Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019


  • chloroplasts
  • complexes
  • gel filtration
  • immunoprecipitation
  • in vitro assay
  • maize
  • pentatricopeptide repeat proteins
  • RIP9
  • RNA editing
  • tandem MS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology

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