Study on governing parameters of thermal history during underwater friction stir welding

Hossein Papahn, Pouya Bahemmat*, Mohammad Haghpanahi, Christof Sommitsch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Underwater friction stir welding (FSW) could widely extend the submarine applications of solid-state welding methods. Since, in the case of underwater FSW, the temperature field exhibits profound effects on the acquired weld properties, studying the corresponding governing parameters is of high priority. With this end in view, in order to explicate the heat generated by the FSW tool, the applied forces on the FSW tool, as the unknown parameters in the heat generation equation, are obtained. Subsequently, the heat transfer of the surrounding fluid, which dictates the heat transfer through the workpiece is investigated. The results reveal that upon comparison to FSW in air medium, both translational and axial forces considerably increase leading to greater heat generated by the underwater FSW tool. However, the peak temperature in each point during underwater welding declines dramatically (40 %) compared to the in-air welding, which can be attributed to the extreme boiling heat transfer of water on both the workpiece and FSW tool. This behavior may be the main reason for the acquired mechanical properties of the underwater-welded AA7075-T6 plates as a precipitating hardening alloy. The mentioned heat transfer is non-uniform over the workpiece and comprises different types including nucleation and transition boiling as well as free convection. Furthermore, the study of the mechanical characteristics revealed that underwater welding leads to joints with more strength and lower ductility compared to those obtained by in-air welding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1101-1111
Number of pages11
JournalThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number5-8
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015


  • Applied forces
  • Boiling heat transfer
  • Heat generation
  • Temperature
  • Underwater FSW

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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