TY - JOUR

T1 - The Deep Atmospheric Composition of Jupiter from Thermochemical Calculations Based on Galileo and Juno Data

AU - Rensen, Frank

AU - Miguel , Yamila

AU - Zilinskas, Mantas

AU - Louca, Amy

AU - Woitke, Peter

AU - Helling, Christiane

AU - Herbort, Oliver

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

PY - 2023/2

Y1 - 2023/2

N2 - The deep atmosphere of Jupiter is obscured beneath thick clouds. This causes direct observations to be difficult, and thermochemical equilibrium models fill in the observational gaps. This research uses Galileo and Juno data together with the Gibbs free energy minimization code GGchem to update the gas phase and condensation equilibrium chemistry of the deep atmosphere of Jupiter down to 1000 bars. Specifically, the Galileo data provides helium abundances and, with the incorporated Juno data, we use new enrichment values for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and sulphur. The temperature profile in Jupiter’s deep atmosphere is obtained following recent interior model calculations that fit the gravitational harmonics measured by Juno. Following this approach, we produced pressure–mixing ratio plots for H, He, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Si, P, S and K that give a complete chemical model of all species occurring to abundances down to a 10 (Formula presented.) mixing ratio. The influence of the increased elemental abundances can be directly seen in the concentration of the dominant carriers for each element: the mixing ratio of NH (Formula presented.) increased by a factor of 1.55 as compared with the previous literature, N (Formula presented.) by 5.89, H (Formula presented.) O by 1.78, CH (Formula presented.) by 2.82 and H (Formula presented.) S by 2.69. We investigate the influence of water enrichment values observed by Juno on these models and find that no liquid water clouds form at the oxygen enrichment measured by Galileo, E (Formula presented.) = 0.47, while they do form at higher water abundance as measured by Juno. We update the mixing ratios of important gas phase species, such as NH (Formula presented.), H (Formula presented.) O, CO, CH (Formula presented.) and H (Formula presented.) S, and find that new gas phase species, such as CN (Formula presented.), (NaCN) (Formula presented.), S (Formula presented.) O and K (Formula presented.), and new condensates, namely H (Formula presented.) PO (Formula presented.) (s), LiCl (s), KCl (s), NaCl (s), NaF (s), MgO (s), Fe (s) and MnS (s), form in the atmosphere.

AB - The deep atmosphere of Jupiter is obscured beneath thick clouds. This causes direct observations to be difficult, and thermochemical equilibrium models fill in the observational gaps. This research uses Galileo and Juno data together with the Gibbs free energy minimization code GGchem to update the gas phase and condensation equilibrium chemistry of the deep atmosphere of Jupiter down to 1000 bars. Specifically, the Galileo data provides helium abundances and, with the incorporated Juno data, we use new enrichment values for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and sulphur. The temperature profile in Jupiter’s deep atmosphere is obtained following recent interior model calculations that fit the gravitational harmonics measured by Juno. Following this approach, we produced pressure–mixing ratio plots for H, He, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Si, P, S and K that give a complete chemical model of all species occurring to abundances down to a 10 (Formula presented.) mixing ratio. The influence of the increased elemental abundances can be directly seen in the concentration of the dominant carriers for each element: the mixing ratio of NH (Formula presented.) increased by a factor of 1.55 as compared with the previous literature, N (Formula presented.) by 5.89, H (Formula presented.) O by 1.78, CH (Formula presented.) by 2.82 and H (Formula presented.) S by 2.69. We investigate the influence of water enrichment values observed by Juno on these models and find that no liquid water clouds form at the oxygen enrichment measured by Galileo, E (Formula presented.) = 0.47, while they do form at higher water abundance as measured by Juno. We update the mixing ratios of important gas phase species, such as NH (Formula presented.), H (Formula presented.) O, CO, CH (Formula presented.) and H (Formula presented.) S, and find that new gas phase species, such as CN (Formula presented.), (NaCN) (Formula presented.), S (Formula presented.) O and K (Formula presented.), and new condensates, namely H (Formula presented.) PO (Formula presented.) (s), LiCl (s), KCl (s), NaCl (s), NaF (s), MgO (s), Fe (s) and MnS (s), form in the atmosphere.

KW - atmospheric composition

KW - clouds

KW - giant planets

KW - solar system

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85147953111&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/rs15030841

DO - 10.3390/rs15030841

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85147953111

SN - 2072-4292

VL - 15

JO - Remote Sensing

JF - Remote Sensing

IS - 3

M1 - 841

ER -