Three-Dimensional (3D) Laser-Induced Graphene: Structure, Properties, and Application to Chemical Sensing

Federico Maria Vivaldi, Alexander Dallinger, Andrea Bonini, Noemi Poma, Lorenzo Sembranti, Denise Biagini, Pietro Salvo, Francesco Greco, Fabio Di Francesco*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Notwithstanding its relatively recent discovery, graphene has gone through many evolution steps and inspired a multitude of applications in many fields, from electronics to life science. The recent advancements in graphene production and patterning, and the inclusion of two-dimensional (2D) graphenic materials in three-dimensional (3D) superstructures, further extended the number of potential applications. In this Review, we focus on laser-induced graphene (LIG), an intriguing 3D porous graphenic material produced by direct laser scribing of carbonaceous precursors, and on its applications in chemical sensors and biosensors. LIG can be shaped in different 3D forms with a high surface-to-volume ratio, which is a valuable characteristic for sensors that typically rely on phenomena occurring at surfaces and interfaces. Herein, an overview of LIG, including synthesis from various precursors, structure, and characteristic properties, is first provided. The discussion focuses especially on transport and surface properties, and on how these can be controlled by tuning the laser processing. Progresses and trends in LIG-based chemical sensors are then reviewed, discussing the various transduction mechanisms and different LIG functionalization procedures for chemical sensing. A comparative evaluation of sensors performance is then provided. Finally, sensors for glucose detection are reviewed in more detail, since they represent the vast majority of LIG-based chemical sensors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30245-30260
Number of pages16
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2021


  • biosensors
  • chemical sensors
  • glucose
  • graphene
  • laser-induced graphene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this