Two-Step Asynchronous Iterative Formation Control for Heterogeneous Vehicles in Highway Scenarios

Massimo Zambelli, Martin Steinberger, Martin Horn, Antonella Ferrara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article a novel algorithm for the on-line control of formations of heterogeneous vehicles is proposed for highway traffic scenarios. A two-step iterative strategy relying on both a discrete and a continuous space representation, using Dynamic Programming and reference tracking via Model Predictive Control, is formulated. It allows the creation and arbitrary
reshaping of vehicle formations in a unified context, providing an applicability in a wide range of practical situations. Only position measurements and basic communication capabilities for global coordination are required for the automated vehicles. Scalability and flexibility are achieved by the underlying decoupled structure of the algorithm, while an asynchronous functioning is enforced due to trigger signals that are exchanged between the vehicles and the coordinator. Different scenarios are simulated and discussed to evidence the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3119-3128
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Formation Control
  • Formation Reshaping
  • Coordinated Control
  • Multi-Agent Systems
  • Dynamic Programming
  • Model Predictive Control

Cite this