Ultrasonic techniques have been developed worldwide aimed to determine and monitor various important properties of cement-based materials. In recent years, advances in computer and experimental equipment have allowed the development of advanced ultrasonic systems. This chapter describes principles of determination of various properties of cement-based materials using ultrasonic techniques. Advantages and limitations of these techniques are briefly presented and discussed. State-of-the-art form of the chapter gives other researchers a comprehensive overview of the developed ultrasonic procedures. Due to their clear physical basis, accuracy, and ease of use, ultrasonic techniques have a great potential to soon become standard testing techniques for determination of setting and other properties of fresh and early-age cement-based materials. The first steps in this direction have already been performed.