Zirconium oxycarbides and oxycarbonitrides: A review: A review

Anastasia Kucheryavaya*, Zoltán Lenčéš*, Pavol Šajgalík, Harald Harmuth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Zirconium oxycarbides and zirconium oxycarbonitrides are high-temperature
ceramic materials with great potential for applications in advanced technologies
due to their good refractoriness, mechanical and thermoelectric properties,
and corrosion resistance. The properties of ZrCO(N) materials strongly depend
on their composition. However, the stoichiometry of stable ZrCO(N) compounds,
synthesis chemistry, and thermodynamics of the proceeding reactions
require clarification. This review comprehensively interprets data for ZrCO and
ZrCON ceramics, including studies that may not have been addressed in prior
reviews. It summarizes the state-of-the-art synthesis procedures involving reactions
between commonly used zirconia, zirconium carbide, and carbon black,
along with other zirconium sources widely used in the last few decades for the
preparation of ZrCO(N) materials. The controversial reaction mechanisms of
carbothermal reduction of zirconia and the role of CO gas in this process are
discussed. The properties of ZrCO and ZrCON and their possible applications
are also summarized.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)541-562
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology
Issue number2
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • carbothermal reduction
  • refractories
  • zirconium oxycarbide
  • zirconium oxycarbonitride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Marketing

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