Remarkable progress in the fields of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) has led to an increased number of applications of (data-driven) AI systems for the partial or complete control of safety-critical systems. Recently, ML solutions have been particularly popular. Such approaches are often met with concerns regarding their correct and safe execution, which is often caused by missing knowledge or intransparency of their exact functionality. The investigation and derivation of methods for the safety assessment of AI systems are thus of great importance. Among others, these issues are addressed in the field of AI Safety. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of this field by means of a systematic literature review with special focus on the area of highly automated driving, as well as to present a selection of approaches and methods for the safety assessment of AI systems. Particularly, validation, verification, and testing are considered in light of this context. In the review process, two distinguished classes of approaches have been identified: On the one hand established methods, either referring to already published standards or well-established concepts from multiple research areas outside ML and AI. On the other hand newly developed approaches, including methods tailored to the scope of ML and AI which gained importance only in recent years.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Artificial intelligence