Ageliki Valavanoglou, Detlef Heck

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Delay and Disruption is a common occurrence in construction projects. The challenges of forensic schedule analysis and the evaluation of the extent of project delay increase with the degree of complexity of a project. The occurrence of multiple concurrent delays, secondary effects and the cumulative impact of delay and disruption events can render the establishment of entitlement to extension of time and reimbursement a difficult task. In order for the claiming party to receive compensation for project delay and disruption, causation, liability and quantum have to be demonstrated and proven.
Advances in technology have made a shift from conventional delay analysis methods towards delay and disruption analysis supported by Building Information Models possible. Research and application of Building Information Models has increased in recent years, exploring information coordination on multiple dimensions. Linking the fourth dimension of time to a 3D model enables the user to visualize a representation of the construction process. The application of 4D simulation in forensic schedule analysis is a great tool for the visualization of delay events and their effects on the project schedule and the construction process. Although 4D Building Information Models are able to assist forensic schedule analysis, the identification of the cause and effect relationship of delay events of complex construction works, requires an expert who is not only familiar with the software tools but has also experience in delay analysis and is able to clearly determine the accuracy of the produced data. 4D Building Information Models can simulate a high level of project performance, producing great quantities of data. The role of the delay analyst is to identify the relevant facts from the great quantities of data simulated in the 4D model, in order to support his findings of entitlement, causation and resulting damages. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of 4D Building Information Modelling in delay and disruption claims and outline the expertise required to perform the forensic schedule analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2016


  • Construction
  • 4D BIM
  • Scheduling
  • Dispute
  • Expert

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)

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