The family of berberine bridge enzyme-like enzymes: A treasure-trove of oxidative reactions: A treasure-trove of oxidative reactions

Bastian Daniel, Barbara Konrad, Marina Toplak, Majd Lahham, Julia Messenlehner, Andreas Winkler, Peter Macheroux

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Biological oxidations form the basis of life on earth by utilizing organic compounds as electron donors to drive the generation of metabolic energy carriers, such as ATP. Oxidative reactions are also important for the biosynthesis of complex compounds, i.e. natural products such as alkaloids that provide vital benefits for organisms in all kingdoms of life. The vitamin B2-derived cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) enable an astonishingly diverse array of oxidative reactions that is based on the versatility of the redox-active isoalloxazine ring. The family of FAD-linked oxidases can be divided into subgroups depending on specific sequence features in an otherwise very similar structural context. The sub-family of berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes has recently attracted a lot of attention due to the challenging chemistry catalyzed by its members and the unique and unusual bi-covalent attachment of the FAD cofactor. This family is the focus of the present review highlighting recent advancements into the structural and functional aspects of members from bacteria, fungi and plants. In view of the unprecedented reaction catalyzed by the family's namesake, BBE from the California poppy, recent studies have provided further insights into nature's treasure chest of oxidative reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-103
Number of pages16
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2017


  • Berberine
  • Eschscholzia
  • Flavin Mononucleotide
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Plant Proteins
  • Journal Article
  • Review

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