X-Ray Lithography for Nanofabrication: Is There a Future?

Amardeep Bharti, Alessio Turchet*, Benedetta Marmiroli*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


X-ray lithography has been first proposed almost 50 years ago, and the related LIGA process around 25 years ago. It is therefore a good time to make an analysis of the technique, with its pros and cons. In this perspective article, we describe X-ray lithography’s latest advancements. First, we report the improvement in the fabrication of the high aspect ratio and high-resolution micro/nanostructures. Then, we present the radiation-assisted synthesis and processing of novel materials for the next generation of functional devices. We finally draw our conclusion on the future prospects of the technique.

Original languageEnglish
Article number835701
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Nanotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • X-ray lithography
  • nanofabrication
  • nanopatterning
  • radiation assisted materials synthesis and processing
  • x-ray lithography
  • nanofabriaction
  • x-ray interference lithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications

Fields of Expertise

  • Advanced Materials Science

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